Today, I would like to share the step by step how I draw using Corel Painter, the reason I used this magical software is, there are more closed to the traditional technique, more artistic and wonderful variety of brush variants the program offers.
Usually, I only make this 7 steps, enough, I didn’t make of tutorial or something like that, didn’t want to teach you to do this and that (in fact, I still in learning process), just want to share, if you want to draw, draw from your inner heart, that better…
I start out by making a rough sketch at new layer, build the simple structure. I often use simple airbrushes.
Then I add basic color using difference layer.
focusing on the relationship between light and shadows.
Make structure more solid and start to build the background.
I create more details using oils and digital watercolor.
So, today I decided, front bushing time! For warm up, we’re looking for some fact;
From the late 1987 (fourth-generation) - 2000 (sixth-generation) civic, Honda applied a double wishbone suspension, normally used in Formula 1 racing machines and prestige vehicles, to a mass-produced model for the first time. The result was an excellent balance of handling stability and superior comfort.
The advantage of a double wishbone suspension is that it is fairly easy to work out the effect of moving each joint, so the kinematics of the suspension can be tuned easily and wheel motion can be optimized. It is also easy to work out the loads that different parts will be subjected to which allows more optimized lightweight parts to be designed. They also provide increasing negative camber gain all the way to full jounce travel unlike the MacPherson strut which provides negative camber gain only at the beginning of jounce travel and then reverses into positive camber gain at high jounce amounts.
Double wishbones are usually considered to have superior dynamic characteristics as well as load-handling capabilities, and are still found on higher performance vehicles. Examples of makes in which double wishbones can be found include Alfa Romeo, Honda and Mercedes-Benz. Short long arms suspension, a type of double wishbone suspension, is very common on front suspensions for medium-to-large cars such as the Honda Accord, Peugeot 407, or Mazda 6/Atenza, and is very common on sports cars and racing cars. Source : http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Double_wishbone_suspension, http://world.honda.com/CIVIC/technology05/,
And including my fifth-generation, that’s why I love my Honda. Some people say, the system is too much for small car. But, another fact is, the advantages will come with the disadvantages too, the disadvantage is that it is slightly more complex than other systems like a MacPherson strut. Due to the increased number of components within the suspension setup it takes much longer to service and is heavier than an equivalent MacPherson design.
To maintenance the superior level, it must be superior care too, how do I know if my bushes need replacing? I rather use my eyes than suddenly hear with my ears.
DISCLAIMER: I can not say this is the best or safest way to do. I am not
responsible for any thing you damage, or what ever harm you cause to
yourself or others. This is how I did it and it worked for me.
Looking around, there wear, this wear, that wear…
Must take out the ‘wishbone’ itself…
Nothing to worry, nothing to fear…
Must to believe in our self….
Jack up the car and remove the wheels, my goal is to remove entire lower control arm (LCA). Remove the bracket that hold the sway bar, first remove the bolt that I mark with * at the picture, because the bolt also tie the LCA bracket too. And then remove the other bolts…
Remove the sway bar end link …
To remove the Honda LCA ball joint, I highly recommend you to using ball joint remover, that make your life easy, because Honda ball joint is superior tight, some people may prefer use hammer or ‘jack technique’ .
Be careful not to damage the ball joint boot.
Now, time to go men shopping!
For sway bar end link bushing (Malaysian people called it satay), I use satay (what the funny name) from Honda Accord SM4 (no special reason, just because my dealer didn’t have stock for SR3/SR4).
I go to machine shop and replace all the LCA bushing using press machine,
This is a picture after bush replacement, cleaning and repaint process, look like new! I’m excited to install it back and test drive.
To install sway bar bush, you need to cut it (look at the picture) except if you can do the black magic. Refresh the damper fork and self-locking bolt grease.
Some fact; A sway bar or anti-roll bar or stabilizer bar is a part of an automobile suspension that helps reduce the roll of a vehicle that is induced by cornering or road irregularities. It connects opposite (left/right) wheels together through short lever arms linked by a torsion spring. A sway bar increases the suspension’s roll stiffness—its resistance to roll in turns, independent of its spring rate in the vertical direction. The first stabilizer bar patent was awarded to the Canadian S. L. C. Coleman of Fredericton, New Brunswick on April 22, 1919. Source :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sway_bar
If the LCA is hanging extended when you tighten the bolts, the bushings will wear out prematurely because they are preloaded when sitting in the normal resting position. As a generic rule suspension bolts should be tightened with the car’s full weight on its wheels. If you don’t, the bushings are tightened in a twisted position and will wear out. To load the suspension, rest the weight of the car on ramps. You could use a hydraulic jack to raise the suspension arm in relation to the body (this also puts the arms in the correct position) but be very careful to not carry the weight of the car on the jack – this could cause the car to shift or fall down!
Reinstallation is the reverse of removal, DON’T FORGET to put the cotter-pin back, the picture show the cotter-pin correct position. Just remember to tighten the suspension to the final torque in the loaded position. To do this, install suspension bolts loose (not even wrench tight), rest the car on ramps, and then tighten the bolts to their final torque.
Put back the wheel and do tire alignment.
After test drive : Wow, feel so refresh, car going smooth and rigid at the high RPM, improve cornering.
At the late 1996, I was influenced by amazing comic ‘Dragon Ball’ like other child at the time, I collected everything, start with comic, sticker, card, video (yeah, VCR before VCD take over), poster, vinil etc. I really enjoyed reading his manga, he introduce me about the manga world, at the time, I tell myself, I want to draw like Akira Toriyama, I think, I’m not the one, even Masashi Kishimoto idolizing him, this my fan art for my favorite move, fusion! Click here for full view.
Yes, I know…this is lame topic, but, as engineering student, Honda Civic Type-R production is always give me a great inspiration “The quality never know the bound”! so, you can say, this is my tribute entry. I collected the fact and data from the internet. I recommend you to read this article if you are newbie about Honda VTEC before you scroll down.
This topic I would like to dedicate to the first model of Honda Civic Type-R , EK-9, the legendary, the legacy, the power of dream!
The Honda Civic Type R is the highest performance version of the Honda Civic made by Honda Motor Company of Japan. It features a lightened and stiffened body, specially tuned engine and upgraded brakes and chassis. Red is also used in the interior to give it a special sporting distinction and to separate it from other Honda models. In Japan, a one-make series of Honda Type R cars where privateers can purchase an off-road Type R and compete in a series championship is a stepping stone for many aspiring racing drivers. Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honda_Civic_Type_R#Premier_Special_Edition
1st generation (EK9 chassis)
The first Civic to receive the ‘Type R’ name was based on the 6th-generation ‘EK’ Civic. The contributing base model was the JDM Civic 3-door hatchback called SiR, code named EK4. Like its big brother the Integra Type R DC2/JDM DB8, the Civic SiR’s transformation into a Type R was achieved by working on the base model and improving it to Honda’s idea of a car capable of high performance on the circuit.
The first Civic to receive the Type R badge was introduced in 1998 as the EK9. The EK9 shared many characteristics with the Integra Type R DC2/ JDM DB8 such as omission of sound deadening and other weight-reduction measures, a hand-ported B16B engine, front helical limited-slip differential and close ratio gearbox etc.. The B16B engine boasted one of the highest power output per litre of all time for an NA engine with 185 PS (136 kW; 182 hp) from a 1.6L. For the first time, a strategically seam welded monocoque chassis was used to improve chassis rigidity. The interior featured red Recaro seats,red Recaro door cards and red Recaro floor mat, a titanium shift knob and a Momo steering wheel. In 1999 the Type Rx was introduced featuring a CD player, body colored retractable electric door mirrors, power windows, auto air conditioning, key-less entry unlock system, aluminum sports pedals, and a carbon type center panel. The SiR badge from the previous 2 generations was ceded to the EK4 Civic as a mainstream sedan and hatchback which was sold in huge numbers across the globe due to its relatively low cost, practicality and everyday usable street performance/drivability.
- End of Introduction -
To make you clear, I’ll put the data that I collected from WWW, this the comparison between base model (EK-4) was also the great car and Type-R model (EK-9) improve from the great car and engine!
1997 – 2001
Doors and Body Style
1595cc B16B Spec R
MULTI POINT F/INJ
MULTI POINT F/INJ
5M with LSD
15″ Alloy Wheels, 4 Speaker Stereo, ABS (Antilock Brakes), Adjustable Steering Col. – Tilt & Reach, Air Conditioning, Airbags – Driver & Passenger (Dual), Central Locking, Engine Immobiliser, Paint – Metallic, Power Door Mirrors, Power Steering, Power Windows, Radio Cassette, Sunroof – Electric and Tilt, Suspension – Sports, Seats – Sport bucket, Centre Console with dual cup holder, Rear seat head restraints, Digital Clock
Central Locking, Power Windows, Power Mirrors, Power Steering, Radio Cassette with 4 Speakers, Dual Airbag Package, ABS
Leather wrapped MOMO Steering wheel with SRS airbag, Red Carpet, Red Arm rests, Red Floormats with Type R badging, Titanium gear shifter, Red stiched boot, Carbon centre dash console with Type R badge, Type R Instument cluster, Carbon dash bezel, Emergency Flare, No Coin holder, Red Recaro seats, Bodykit, Red exterior badging, Colour coded exterior panels, UV cut glass, Privacy glass,
Red engine head cover,
Vented Discs, ABS
Larger Vented Disc , ABS (optional)
195-55-15 Enkei 5 stud PCD
Ind; double wishbones with coil springs gas damper and stabiliser bars
Ind; double wishbones with coil springs gas damper
Ind; double wishbones with coil springs gas damper and stabiliser bars
Ind; double wishbones with coil springs gas damper and trailing link
1059kg (97 Spec) 1089kg (98 Spec)
1/4 Mile time
B16B Spec R
Bore x Stroke
Valve Timing at 1mm lift IN Open/Close
Valve Lift (Max Lift)
IN 10.7mm, EX 9.4mm
IN 11.5mm, EX 10.5mm
Inlet Valve Diamter
33mm x 2mm
33mm x 2mm
Spark Plug Type
Heat Rate #6
Heat Rate #7 platinum
Throttle Bore Diameter
Single pipe sideflow
Single pipe sideflow
Air Intake Diameter
Exhaust Pipe Diameter
Silencer Flow Capacity
Max Lift (IN/EX)Open Timing (IN/EX)Close Timing (IN/EX)
10.7/9.4BTDC15/BBDC40ABDC 45/ATDC 7
11.5/10.5BTDC 18/BBDC45BTDC 45/ATDC 10
Connecting rod bearing width
Tetra-methyl lead coated crank
Chrome carbon steel
High chrome carbon steel
Molybdenum coated low friction
Final Gear Ratio
The Masterpiece of Art!
So, what actually they (Honda’s Engineer) do? To create such a masterpiece, not an easy task, to create masterpiece (B16B) from already masterpiece (B16A) is very difficult task! And I’m here not only talked about power, because, with ‘aftermarket’ it’s very easy to archive as long as you have money, I’m more focus about balance, harmonic, durability, research and art!
On the below are the power curves for B16A 170ps versus B16B. Note the big gain in power after 6000rpm, the VTEC switch-over point between mild and wild cam profiles. The gain at extreme high rpms is readily apparent on the curves. Source : http://asia.vtec.net/beystock/honda/civicr/
Honda tune the R by hand
This is one of the factors why R are so limited, Honda using their experience and knowledge gained in the racing field and making use of it in their production lines for street cars. The Civic’s VTEC B16B type engine retained its stock displacement, but Honda increased its horsepower from 170 (B16A) to 185 (B16B). It’s only *15* horses more, but those 15 horses were really tweaked out using Honda’s formula 1 knowledge — from an engine that was already getting 100 horsepower per liter!
Currently, production line engines and engine parts are made by computer-guided NCR machines, and are of very high quality. However, Mr. Fumiyasu Suga (Type R’s assistant chief engineer) believes that in order to make a true race engine, some parts must be built/assembled by hand. In specific, the assembling of the engine, balancing parts, and porting and polishing need to be done by hand. Amazingly, all Type R engines are built this way. Source : http://www.superhonda.com
One of the keys to tuning a NA engine is the piston. In order to increase the compression ratio, aluminum, pent-roof-type pistons were used. In order to keep a good precision of mass, the aluminum pistons were forged. The piston ring was given more space to move around in, and to prevent piston “head” shake caused by the extra space, a molybdenum coating (also used in the NSX) was applied to lessen friction. Source : http://www.superhonda.com
The piston skirt was made lighter in order to lessen the inertial mass. Since lightening the piston causes the piston “neck” to rock back and forth, a molybdenum coating was applied to lessen friction.
In order to increase compression ratio, the side molds of the pistons were increased, from 10.4 to 10.8, The picture below shows you the differences between JDM Civic Type R B16B and JDM B16A Sir2 (EK4) P30.
Injectors installed on the underside of the pistons allow for improved cooling, and prevent the pistons from getting “burned-in”.
For endurance, B16B used B18C spec R’s cylinder block, that mean it’s destroked from B18C and using same timing belt (Honda PN: 14400-P72-014, not compatible with B16A (14400-P2T-004)), also the engine bridge girdle and cylinder head bolts (90006-P72-003, 11×164) vs from B16A (90006-PG6-003, 11×155).
The con rods are specially made for the Type R. The precision weight of these con rods are 2 levels above that of on-line production models. The weight differential between all four rods is so small that it is negligible, and all contacting surface areas are finished off with a race-car, mirror finish, and is connected to a fully balanced crankshaft. Furthermore, the assembly of the con rods and the crankshaft play an important role in attaining the high rpm’s. In order to ensure perfect assembly, the engine is taken off-line and these parts are assembled by hand. A custom con rod micrometer gauge is used, and the stretching of the con rod bolt is taken into account for as the connections are tightened. This is something no machine can do, and this ensures that there aren’t any unwanted vibrations at high rpm. Source : http://www.superhonda.com
Custom-made connecting rods for the Type R. It is made to withstand the higher rpm’s, and is still lighter than the stock parts. These Type R parts are made with such precision that the weight difference between all four rods is so small that it is negligible.
B16B(77.4mm crankshaft and 142.42mm connecting rod) vs B18C (87.2mm crankshaft and 137.9mm connecting rod)
Hand Job Porting
The video below show the porting job for B18C 96spec R, the procedure is similar for B16B, by Honda Motor Co.,Ltd. Suzuka Plant mechanic,
Naturally, porting and polishing excessively won’t yield good results — it will only upset the balance between displacement and peak rpm’s. Some basic physics explained… In any cylindrical enclosure/piping, the closer air is to the metal wall, it will flow slower, and the closer it is to the center of the cylinder, it will flow faster. As rpm’s increase, slight variations in the enclosure will cause for serious air flow disturbances. Logically speaking, a straight, cylindrical port would prevent any problems of air-flow disturbance, but with street cars and their limited engine bay space, the port has to be bent.
The stock port is built to within such precision that it can already withstand rpm’s of up to 7,000 rpm without creating any unwanted air-flow disturbances, but once it reaches 8,200 rpm, the engine struggles to keep the air flowing smoothly. To augment this problem, two of the best mechanics at Honda were selected and assigned to manually port and polish the engine components. Though this limits production to 25 engines a day, this allows for the engine to reach 8,500 rpm, and respectively, 185 horsepower.
Valves and the Valve Springs
Next, the valves and the valve springs needed to be upgraded in order to be able to withstand the high rpm’s and the increased fuel injection. In order to increase air flow efficiency, the angle of the valve seat opening was tightened from 60 to 45 degrees. Also, bigger and lighter valves help to deliver more fuel. Instead of making the valve bigger, Honda engineers made the cone bigger and reduced the stem radius even further. In specific, the underside of the valve cone was shaved to its limit, and the valve shaft width was decreased from 5.5mm to 4.6mm — making the valve 12% lighter than stock. Amazingly, the valves are made so precisely that their static balance differential is basically 0.0. We jokingly asked Mr. Suga what he would do if Honda’s parts manufacturers sent over valves that had weight differences. His reply was quick and simple. “We would toss them out.” Hm… very strict. Past 8,000 rpm, other valve-related problems occur. Such problems include surging, jumping, bouncing, etc… In order to prevent such problems, the valve springs are made by dual-bound springs. Furthermore, Honda used non-cylindrical, “flat” springs in order to keep the spring height near-stock, and still increase rebounding power. Source : http://www.superhonda.com
B16B B18C Type R Intake Valves are same diameter as regular B-series valves but have distinct advantages in being 12% lighter in mass, with noticeably thinner valve stem from 5.5mm to 4.6mm, hence larger cone area and an improved contour for better air flow. Type R lightened intake valves are made so precise that their static balance differential is basically 0.0. Type R intake dual valve springs are specially made to work with Type R lightened intake valves for higher lift and rpm specifications. They are non-cylindrical, flat springs with increased rebounding power while their spring height are still near-stock. This will help to prevent valve-related problems past 8000 rpm such as surging, jumping, bouncing etc.
In order to prevent engine knocking at high rpm’s, NGK’s high-spark #7 platinums are used. Honda is so meticulous with its Type R production that it actually coats the spark plug tip with silicone so the spark plug doesn’t collect any unwanted deposits during the stop-and-go of transportation. (Wow… does that help any?)
The camshaft profiles (wild cam) change from B16A2 and B16B are :
JDM B16A 170ps
Max Lift (IN/EX)
Open Timing (IN/EX)
BTDC 15/BBDC 40
BTDC 18/BBDC 45
Close Timing (IN/EX)
ABDC 40/ATDC 7
ABDC 45/ATDC 10
BTDC = Before Top-Dead-Center, BBDC = Before Bottom-Dead-Center
The camshaft lift amount was changed for both intake and exhaust valves. The intake lift was increased from 10.7mm to 11.5mm, and the exhaust lift was increased from 9.4mm to 10.5mm. To compensate, the intake opening timing was increased from 15 to 18 degrees before piston apex, and closing timing was increased from 40 to 45 degrees after the piston reaching base. Likewise, the exhaust opening timing was increased from 40 to 45 degrees before the piston reaching base, and the closing timing was increased from 7 to 10 degrees after piston apex. By doing so, the valves remain open longer — allowing for more air to enter the combustion chamber.
To make sure the engine has a enough breath at the high RPM, the intake manifold was being modified (High-RPM type), the body is bigger and the plenums are short and fat compare to the B16A intake manifold.
The throttle bore diameter for B16B is identical to B16A at 60mm. This means that enlarged throttle bodies for B16A might not be an optimal mod or that a compromise in power delivery might result, eg loss of low-end power in return for gain in high-end power.
Unlike the base crankshaft, additional balancing weights were added on number 1 and 4, and allows for smooth, high-rpm revving — making it a 8-weight, fully-balanced crankshaft.
The attachment point of the connecting rods to the crankshaft uses a new, adjustable connector that allows the mechanics to manually adjust the connection using a micrometer so they can compensate for the stretching of the connecting rod bolt.
In order to make exhaust air flow smoother, there are no sharp angles in the header. Furthermore, in order to lighten/strengthen the parts, stainless steel was used.
Impossible to do in mass-production, all exhaust piping is welded together with no sharp edges throughout. Also, the piping was upgraded to 57.2mm throughout to increase air flow.
The muffler is a multi-chamber design, and does a wonderful job of dissipating sound. However, the funnel-shaped piping in-between the chambers makes it a very free-flowing exhaust.
Adopt a lightweight flywheel dedicated to the type R transmission , was approximately 10% lighter from the base model. In addition, to reduce the stroke select direction, with the shift direction, change also provides a sporty feel light and applied in conjunction with a double-cone synchronizer speed to the second speed.
Installed with the torque-sensitive helical LSD, to provide excellent traction when cornering. With the improvement of turning limit, the result is excellent acceleration and less understeer, a feel good sentiment turning.
cut model of the helical LSD
The main points of the body strengthening.
“In overview, over 60 engine-related parts were changed or entirely re-designed for the Type R. We asked Mr. Suga for any other advice on tuning the Type R any further. He replied, “I would prefer that people don’t try to further tune the Type R. No, actually, they shouldn’t try. Each upgraded part works in perfect harmony, and fiddling with the factory setting will only lead to a decrease in performance.” It’s probably safe to say that the Type R is a rare, “fully tuned” and “stock” automobile. ” Source : http://www.superhonda.com
This is normal maintenance. Small job, straightforward…
This piece is called engine stopper rubber but some people called it engine mount, used to absorb vibration from your engine at the both site (left and right) especially when launch time or changing gear, so, it will effect engine torque a little bit.
Jack up the car and remove the tires on both sides.
I started with the right side, open the splash shield…
Wow! Now I know why my engine dance sometimes…
Before remove it, gently and slowly jack the engine up using a piece of wood on the jack to distribute weight evenly on the oil pan and also at the gearbox.
To remove it, very easy job, straightforward until I’m too lazy to write on…
Same goes to right side…
Horrible and disaster!
Replace with the new parts…
All done, throttle response is back and so is smoother gear shifting. Car is also quieter at idle now with fewer vibrations.
I didn’t make of tutorial or something like that, didn’t want to teach you to do this and that (in fact, I’m still in the learning process), just want to share, if you want to draw, draw from your inner heart, that better…
So, for the equipment,
Basic color tube, canvas, several variation of brush, palette knives (Palette knives are for mixing paint on the palette or applying large amounts of paint to the canvas.), turpentine (special turpentine for oil painting) and linseed oil are used to thin the paint. And for finishing, varnish (Varnish is a final layer applied to a painting after it is finished and completely dry. It’s used on paintings that are not going to be framed under glass to protect them from dirt, dust, and pollution in the environment. Varnish also homogenizes (evens out) the final appearance of a painting, making it all equally glossy or matte. Source : http://painting.about.com/od/paintingforbeginners/a/varnish_why.htm )
A palette is essential for mixing paint.
I found this article is a good information for beginning, just for sharing, but you can skip
In oil painting when do you use turpentine versus linseed oil?
First, linseed oil does not thicken paint. Quite the contrary, adding more oil eventually leads to a runny consistency. Adding small amounts can be useful for achieving certain effects, thinning the paint is one of them.
Now, your under-painting should not have any extra oil added to it. The remaining options are to use paint straight from the tube or to reduce the viscosity (thin it) with one of three solvents (turpentine, mineral spirits or spike oil of lavender which sounds like an oil but it is a strong solvent like turpentine).
The idea is that the under-layers are comprised of the least oil so they dry faster than the subsequent layers applied on top of them. Solvents like the three mentioned have the benefit of evaporating quickly so all that remains is the thin layer of paint. You do a thinned wash block-in to layout the general masses of the composition.
Some people try to avoid using the three solvents in an effort to avoid the fumes or odor. An option that avoids these three solvents is to use paint straight from the tube but to spread it onto the canvas very thinly. You essentially scribble the paint onto the canvas using a brush as you would color using a color crayon. The result will be a scribbled/sketchy block-in. The technique is known as “scumbling.” This first layer of paint will not have extra oil and it will also be thin because you have stretched out a small amount of paint over a relatively large area.
In oil painting there is a rule “fat over lean” that refers to the oil content. The rule addresses the different rates at which each layer dries. You want the under-layers to dry first. If they dry slower than the outer layers, the outer layers will wrinkle and crack. The percentage of oil in the paint affects the drying rate. The reason you do not want to add oil to the under-layers is that the extra oil will prolong the drying rate of the layer. Although you are not required to increase the percentage of oil in subsequent layers, this rule must be followed if you do have a reason to add oil to your mixtures during the paint application stage. To restate this in different words, You could paint a painting never adding additional oil at any stage as long as you keep the first layers spread thin. Using additional oil by itself or in a medium may be desired. There are a variety of characteristics that this imparts on the paint. If you choose to add extra oil in these forms they should only be added in the outer/final layers. You never want to use a medium or extra oil in the lower layers.
Oil paint is comprised of the vehicle for pigment……an oil, the pigment and varying additives which could include stabilizer, chalks, waxes, drying agents. The most common oil has been linseed oil. Other oils are sometimes used such as safflower, poppy and walnut. The ratio of oil to pigment is important and each pigment has different properties. Adding too much oil can dilute the paint so much that its integrity is compromised which would result in a weakened paint film that may not cure properly along with a list of other negative side effects. The use of additional oil can be used to enhance paint flow, brushability, translucency, etc. It is also important to note that it is not necessary to use the same oil as that in a given brand of paint. Safflower oil is becoming as common as linseed oil. You can use linseed oil with any other oil. The attributes of each oil are blended.
The main thing to think about when using turpentine in a mixture is that it is a thinner. A common ingredient in a medium is stand oil. It is thick like honey and needs to be thinned. A common medium is made with linseed oil, stand oil and one of the three solvents listed earlier.
Turpentine is also good for cleaning paint brushes. It will removed dried paint in the brush. Mineral spirits also can be used to clean your brushes but it only removes wet paint. Now because turpentine is so good at removing dried paint, using too much when painting will remove some of the paint in your lower layers so you have to watch out for this. The third solvent mentioned, spike oil of lavender is the strongest and it also evaporates the slowest of the three. It is very expensive and should only be used for mixing directly with you paint or in a medium. Do not waste it by cleaning brushes with it although it would clean them quite thoroughly. This slower evaporation rate can be useful.
Learning the specific characteristics of your materials will greatly enhance your options in painting. Everything has an effect. Knowing what is used to achieve an effect allows you to make informed decisions that lead to a desired result. Ultimately you want to pull together skills and materials to create something like pulling out a recipe and the ingredients to bake a cake. In either case you don’t do so well if you hope things come together by accident.
- End of Information-
I start with basic pencil sketch, some artist prefer to make detail sketch, that’s good, but I’m too lazy for that, I rather like to detailing my work next with color. The first layer of paint is applied as a thin wash, I put some basic color, character and background, lets it dry…
Playing with the shadow, use a little black to adjust face, background and clothing…
Do more adjustments in the face.
Focus on eyes and nose, mix the color until get the right tone, need more patient…
Adding more details at the hair, mouth and ear, try to balance the shadow between skin and shadow, to make color layers smooth, I used my fingers tip. Adjust body posture.
To make cloth and hair more realistic and lively and not just a flat black color, I mix a few of blue and black, then, balance it with light and contrast, lets it dry…
I love this part, color the tree or green thing, make me excited, you should try, just put your feeling on it, lets it dry…
Back to background…put more details…
Once again, more details on the face…
Make sure painting completely dry, then apply the varnish oil, put the frame and done!
Motivation: What important is, don’t give up and don’t be hesitate, this your arts, be proud